Varicose veins: causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment.

varicose veins on the legs

Varicose veins of the lower extremities manifest as an expansion of the superficial veins of the legs, which accompanies impaired blood flow and valve failure. How to recognize a disease and what to do?

Today, varicose veins are very common - seen in about 17-25 percent of people. In adolescence, before the onset of puberty, this ailment develops in both sexes with the same frequency. However, in women in adulthood, varicose veins are seen twice as often as in men. A similar picture can be explained by significant hormonal changes during the onset of menstruation, while carrying a child. As a result, the tone of the veins weakens, they expand, and venous circulation is impaired.

A professional phlebologist indicated what factors should be paid attention to in order to avoid this disease or replace it in time and prevent serious consequences.

Which is the reason

Today there are many theories as to why varicose veins develop on the legs. But still, the main reason is a violation of the valve apparatus of the veins. In case of insufficiency of the vein valves in a standing person, there is a downward rush of blood under the influence of gravity. When walking, the lower leg muscles that surround the deep veins contract. Consequently, the veins empty and the venous pressure increases. As a result, blood enters the superficial veins, they are stretched and varicose veins appear.

There are a number of factors that directly affect the progression of varicose veins. In women, varicose veins often develop as a result of pregnancy. During this period, the volume of blood in the female body increases significantly, hormonal changes in the body affect the state of the vein wall. In many cases, varicose veins during pregnancy are reversible, that is, after delivery, they gradually disappear.

Very often, varicose veins of the lower extremities manifest themselves in people who have to stand for a long time during work. Another risk factor for varicose veins is obesity: obese people have increased intra-abdominal pressure and, as a result, varicose veins. Varicose veins can sometimes be the result of leg surgery.

Another predisposing factor to varicose veins is age. As a general rule, over time, the valves and the walls of the veins age: elasticity is lost and the veins stretch. Varicose veins often occur in deep vein thrombosis patients with congenital abnormalities of the blood vessels.

Visibly and invisibly

The visible symptoms of varicose veins in the legs are the appearance of a network of fine veins on the surface of the skin of the legs, mainly in the thigh area. Such a varicose mesh is easier to see in those who suffer from cellulite. Sometimes it is cellulite that becomes a kind of harbinger of varicose veins, because fat deposits in cellulite squeeze the venous vessels, as a result, blood flow becomes complicated and varicose veins appear.

A symptom of varicose veins is usually the manifestation of pain in the legs.

The sensations can be sharp and may also have signs of pulling. Often with varicose veins, pain in the calves is manifested. It occurs mainly in the second half of the day, after an effort on the legs. There may be a feeling of intense heaviness in the legs, cramps at night may occur, trophic changes gradually become visible in the legs.

Therefore, a person who observes the appearance of a capillary network, periodic manifestations of pain and edema should consult a doctor. There are a number of different tests that can assess the condition of the veins and the degree of development of the disease. If the patient has uncomplicated varicose veins, instrumental diagnostic methods are not used in most cases.

Treatment and prevention

Conservative treatment of varicose veins is prescribed mainly for people who have contraindications to surgical intervention. In addition, such treatment is indicated if the patient has a slight expansion of the veins, which is an exclusively cosmetic defect. The purpose of conservative therapy is also to prevent further progression of this disease. For this, patients are advised to use an elastic bandage for the legs affected by varicose veins. In addition, compression stockings are shown.

People who have a tendency to varicose veins or who already suffer from this ailment should regularly place their feet on a raised platform throughout the day, thus resting for several minutes. There are also special exercises for the lower leg and foot, designed to activate the muscle-venous pump. This is a periodic extension and flexion of the ankle and knee joints.

With varicose veins, it is necessary to wear only comfortable shoes, with a low heel and a hard sole. You should not stand for a long time, allow physical stress, stay in rooms with high temperature and humidity for a long time. In a dream, it is advisable to keep the legs in an elevated position.

Patients should limit the intake of fluids and salt, try to get rid of excess weight. For the treatment of varicose veins, it is necessary to periodically take diuretics, drugs that improve the tone of the veins. Also, if there are indications, the patient may be prescribed drugs that stimulate microcirculation in tissues. Varicose vein therapy may also include the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. If the patient has an uncomplicated form of the disease, he is shown physiotherapy. Swimming, other water procedures, warm foot baths, to which a 5-10 percent sodium chloride solution is added, are very helpful.

However, a radical method of treating varicose veins is surgery. But here are a number of contraindications. In particular, such an operation is not performed if the patient has concomitant diseases of the lungs, cardiovascular system, kidneys and liver.

Prevention of varicose veins includes a number of measures aimed at preventing the signs of the disease. It is useful for each person to keep their legs raised periodically, to take breaks during sedentary work and not to wear underwear that tightens the body. A good method to prevent varicose veins is a contrast shower, the inclusion of foods that are good for the blood in the diet and some physical exercise. At the first signs of varicose veins, you should consult a doctor to prevent the progression of the disease.